Initial Public Offering: An Easy Explanation Of The IPO Concept

Initial Public Offering: An Easy Explanation Of The IPO Concept

An IPO involves the process of providing shares of a private corporation to the public in the issuance of the latest stock. An IPO enables a company to raise capital from the public investors. The IPO full form is Initial Public Offering. The shift from a public company to a private company can be a crucial time for any private investor to realize full profits from their investments as it includes a share premium for the present private investors. At the same time, it also enables public investors to take part in the offering.

How Does An Initial Public Offering Operate?

Now that you know the Initial Public Offering meaning, let us see how it works. Before making an IPO, a company is thought of as a private company. As a pre-IPO private company, the business has evolved with a comparatively small amount of shareholders that includes early investors like family, founders, etc. 

Launching an IPO is a massive step for any company as it offers the company with the access to raise a huge amount of money. This provides the business with a greater opportunity to expand and grow. The greater transparency and the credibility of shared listing can also be an element in allowing it to attain better terms when looking for borrowed funds as well. 

When a company attains a stage in its process of evolution where it thinks it is mature enough for the severity of the regulations of the SEC along with the advantages to the public shareholders, it will showcase its interest in going public.  

Typically, this stage of evolution will happen when a company has attained a private valuation of roughly $1 billion. However private IPO companies at varied valuations with proven profitability and strong fundamentals can also qualify for an IPO depending on the competition of the market and their ability to cater to the requirement of the listing. 

Initial Public Offerings Process

An IPO generally is of two parts. The first phase is the premarketing one, and the other is the Initial Public Offerings itself. When a company is genuinely interested in an IPO it will showcase the underwriters by petitioning private bids or it can also make the public statements to develop profits. Here are the steps to an IPO.

1. Proposal

Underwriters offer valuations and proposals discussing services they provide, the best type of security to offer, the number of shares, offering price, and the predicted time frame for the market offering.

2. Underwriter

The company selects its underwriters and formally accepts to underwrite terms via an underwriting agreement.

3. Team

IPO teams are created comprising lawyers, underwriters, SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission) experts, and certified public accountants (CPAs).

4. Documentation

Information about the company is gathered for needed IPO documentation. The S-1 Registration Statement is the basic IPO filing document. It has 2 parts—the prospectus and the filing information that is held privately.

The S-1 comprises preliminary data about the anticipated date of the filing. It will be revised often across the pre-IPO process. The composed prospectus is also revised constantly.

5. Marketing & Updates

Marketing materials are formed for pre-marketing of the new issuance of stock. Executives and Underwriters market the share issuance to evaluate demand and set up a final offering price. Underwriters can do revisions to their financial analysis across the process of marketing. This can comprise changing the price of the IPO or issuance date as they think is convenient.


Initial Public Offerings tend to attract a lot of media attention, some of which is intentionally done by the company going public. Generally speaking, IPOs are famous among investors as they tend to offer volatile price shifts on the day of the IPO and shortly after that. This can occasionally offer large gains, even though it can also offer large losses. Finally, investors should consider each IPO as per the prospectus of the company that is going public, along with their financial situations and risk tolerance. Now that you know the meaning of IPO, there are many upcoming IPOs that you can look for.

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Yaseer Rashid

Yaseer Rashid got a degree in Journalism and worked as a freelancer. Later he joined News Magnify as a Business and stock writer.

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